Bibliographic Rules

References to the text:

  • A footnote needs to include the author's name, the year of the publication and a range of pages (optionally), e.g. (Smith, 1998, p. 1).
  • If there are two authors of the publication, both their names should be given, separated with the conjunction "and", e.g. (Smith and Nowak, 2001, pp. 13–45).
  • In case there are three to five authors, all the names should be given in the first footnote to the publication and in the next ones the name of the first author only, e.g. (Smith, Nowak and Pawlak, 2012), (Smith et al., 2012).
  • In case there are six or more authors (joint publication) there should be only the name of the first author given in a footnote,e.g. (Pawlak et al., 2007).
  • In a footnote to the publication written by an organization/ institution the full name of the institution must be given when mentioned for the first time, and then the abbreviated form and the year of the publication should be given, e.g. (United Nations [UN], 2012). In the subsequent references the abbreviated form should be used, e.g. (UN, 2012) .
  • For the anonymous publication, such as report, there should be the title and the year of publication given in a footnote,e.g. (“Research Report”, 2012) .
  • If the names of authors or a title of an anonymous publication are given in the text, the footnote should include only the year of publication, e.g. suggested by Smith (1998); according to the qualification by Pawlak and Smith (2001).
  • If the name of an organisation/institution is given in the text, the first footnote should include its abbreviated form and the year of publication,e.g. written by the United Nations (UN , 2012), in the following part the abbreviated name and the year of publication should be used,e.g. UN report (2012). If the name does not have an abbreviated form a full name should be given and the year of publication should be mentioned,e.g. the Teachers’ Council (2000).

Bibliographic description:

  • A book:
    Smith, A. (n.d). Academic e-learning. London: Publisher X.
    Smith, A. and Nowak, B. (2013). Distance education. Poznan: Publisher X.
    Smith, A. , Nowak, B. and Pawlak, R. (ed.). (2012). About e-learning (2nd edition). London: Gold Publisher.
  • A chapter/paper in a book:
    Smith, A. (2012). Moodle. In: Smith, A., Nowak B. and Smith, R. (ed.) , About e-learning (pp. 23–40). London: Gold Publisher.
    About the distance education. (2011). In: Distance Education (3rd editon, pp. 4–6). Warsaw: Publisher X.
  • Paper in a journal:
    Smith, K. (2012). Education and new media. Annals of Education, 12, pp. 43–47.
    Pawlak, A. (2012). The boundaries of education. Electronic Education, 7 (2), pp. 45–50.
    Smith, R. (2008). Tools for e-learning. Annals of Education, 3, pp. 34–38. Downloaded on June 19, 2012, from: http://www.adres.artykulu.pl
    What's new in academic e-learning. (August 2005). Newsletter on e -learning. Downloaded on June 19, 2012, from: http://www.adres.artykulu.pl
  • Internet
    Common Knowledge Society (n.d.). Downloaded on June 19, 2012, from: http://www.twp.edu.pl
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (producer). (Spring 2011). Introduction to psychology [film]. Downloaded on June 1, 2012, from: http://www.adres.filmu.pl
    Smith, B. (producer). (2012). E-learning in audio version [audiocast]. Downloaded on June 1, 2012, from : http://www.adres.audiocastu.pl

It is allowed to use endnotes to explain, comment, add interpretation, etc. The editors claim the right to make editorial changes in the published papers.